Our brains begin to form during the fifth week of pregnancy and they continue to develop and change throughout our lives. The way our brain forms and develops is, to some extent, inherited from our parents and grandparents, but it is also highly dependent on our experiences. This includes experiences during pregnancy. We know that during pregnancy, exposure of the developing brain to things like maternal stress hormones, malnutrition, alcohol or drugs (called teratogens) affects how the brain develops. We also know that adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), such as abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction, affects a child’s developing brain (www.rwjf.org/aces). Exactly how these experiences affect each child’s brain is somewhat different and can show itself in a range of behaviours and difficulties.